1 c. sifted all-purpose flour = 1 c. plus 2 tbsp. sifted cake flour

1 tbsp. cornstarch (for thickening) – 2tbsp. flour

1 tbsp. baking powder = 1/4 tsp. baking soda plus 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar

1 c. granulated sugar = 1/ 3/4 c. confectioners’ (powdered) sugar

1 c. butter or margarine = 7/8-1 c. vegetable shortening or lard, plus 1/2 tsp. salt

1 cake compressed yeast = 1 pkg. or 2 tsp. active dry yeast

1 square (1 oz.) unsweetened chocolate = 3 tbsp. cocoa plus 1 tbsp. butter

1 whole egg = 1/4 cup egg substitute OR 1 egg white + 1 tsp. vegetable oil OR 2 egg whites

1 c. milk = 1/2 c. evaporated milk plus 1/2 c. water

1 c. sour milk = either 1 c. buttermilk or 1 tbsp. lemon juice or white vinegar, plus sweet milk to equal 1 c. (let stand 5 min.)

1 c. sweet milk = 1 c. sour milk or buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp. baking soda

1 c. heavy (40%) cream = 3/4 c. milk plus 1/3. c. butter or margarine (do not use for whipping)

1 c. light light (20%) cream = 7/8 c. milk plus 3 tbsp. butter or margarine

1 c. dairy sour cream = 1 tbsp. lemon juice plus evaporated milk to make 1 c.

1 tbsp. prepared mustard = 1 tsp. dry mustard

1 c. catsup or chili sauce = 1 c. tomato sauce plus 1/2 c. sugar and 2 tbsp. vinegar (for use in cooked mixtures)

1 tsp. dried herb leaves = 1 tbsp. chopped fresh herbs

1 garlic clove = 1 tsp. garlic salt or 1/8 tsp. powdered garlic

1 sm. onion = 1 tsp. minced onion