The normal Quenya plural is formed by adding the ending “r” or “i” to the words.

Nouns ending in a vowel, except “ë”, add “r”. This also goes for words ending in the combination “ië”.
Examples: rocco + r > roccor(horses), tië + r > tier (paths)

Nouns ending in just “ë” replace this final “ë” with “i”.
Example: lótë > lóti (flowers)

Nouns ending in a consonant add “i”.
Example: sairon + i > saironi (wizards)

The definite article

Quenya does not have any indefinite article that would correspond to “a” or “an” in English. There’s only the definite article “i”, meaning “the”.
Example: orco (“an orc”, or just “orc”), i orco (“the orc”).

When translating from Quenya to English, we add the indefinite article “a” / “an” where we think it’s needed!


Vocabulary List

alda “tree”
cundu “prince”
heru “lord”
heri “lady”
roquen “knight, rider”
cáno “commander”
istyar “scholar”
sairon “wizard”
lambengolmo “linguist”
tano ”craftsman, smith”

A note on “aranel”: Other Quenya words ending in -el get this “l” doubled when an ending is added, so it is reasonable to assume that the plural of “aranel” would be “aranelli”. We can say that “aranell-” is the “stem form” of “aranel”. There will be more about this in Lesson 3, so for now, just remember “aranelli” as the plural of “aranel”.


Tengwar lesson 2

In this lesson we’ll meet three more consonants:

Don’t forget that the ‘c’ in Quenya is always pronounced as a ‘k’.

Quessë is the first of many tengwar that represents more than one sound: ‘kw’.

These two sounds are denoted by one tengwa but still count as two consonants for the stress rules (this rule holds for all tengwar that denote more than one sound).

All four tengwar we have met so far have a stem that points below the line (like p or y of the Latin script).