08 – Stop + Liq. Mut.
Stop and Liquid Mutations
IMPORTANT LINK YOU WILL NEED FOR THIS MUTATION LESSON:
Stop mutation is caused by the following words: ed “out of”, ned “in” (referring to time), and o “from”. Stop mutation is a mutation that we can see happening, but that Tolkien never wrote any published material on. We therefore must extrapolate much of what follows, but it should be noted that these are pretty good guesses. Stop mutation is caused by what are linguistically known as “stops”. Phonetic “stops” are sounds that completely stop the outflow of air momentarily, and then release them. This mutation happens when “prepositions that end in stops” are placed before other words. Because it is sometimes hard to pronounce a stop and then a following word, this mutation oftentimes pulls both the preposition’s final sound and the sound of the following word to a more common place of articulation in the mouth (hence the reason the D of “ed and ned” often drops out in this mutation).
Here are some examples of how the stop mutations are formed …..
|ED + B = E B||NED + B = NE B||O + B = O B|
|ED + BL = E BL||NED + BL = NE BL||O + BL = O BL|
|ED + BR = E BR||NED + BR = NE BR||O + BR = O BR|
|ED + C = E CH||NED + C = NE CH||O + C = O CH|
|ED + CL = E CHL||NED + CL = NE CHL||O + CL = O CHL|
|ED + CR = E CHR||NED + CR = NE CHR||O + CR = O CHR|
|ED + D = E D||NED + D = NE D||O + D = O D|
|ED + DR = E DR||NED + DR = NE DR||O + DR = O DR|
|ED + F = EF F||NED + F = NE F||O + F = O F|
|ED + G = E G||NED + G = NE G||O + G = O G|
The chart below shows how all the consonants change in STOP mutation. The original consonant undergoing the change is shaded in BLUE (Basic C means “original basic consonant”.) The changed forms are shaded in YELLOW, along with the instances which cause STOP mutation and the meanings of the words that cause it.
1.) With stop mutation, ED and NED change form along with the first letter of some following words (depending on the following word’s first consonant or consonant cluster).
2.) O does not change form at any time EXCEPT occasionally before vowels. In The War of the Jewels, it states that the preposition O “is normally O in all positions, though OD appears occasionally before vowels, especially before O-“.
Also NOTE that the three special cases of primitive B, D, and G from MB, ND, and NG (at the bottom of the chart) behave differently than regular B, D, and G.
Examples of Stop Mutation
ed + barad > e barad “out of a tower”
ed + daw > e daw “out of gloom”
ned + rhîw > ne thrîw “in winter”
ned + Hithui > ne Chithui “in November”
o + lhûg > o thlûg “from a snake”
o + orod > od orod “from a mountain”
In linguistic terms, liquids are the sounds L and R. The words that probably trigger liquid mutation are … or and we assume …. any other prepositions or prefixes ending in L or R. In Unfinished Tales, p. 265, it is stated: “The much changed Sindarin of Middle-earth turned the stops to spirant after L and R“. Liquid mutation is seen in some compounds (Alchoron, arphen, arphent, erchamion). We also see compounds forming with simple lenition after L and R (Narbeleth, tharbad), so keep in mind that both mutations might be possible in forming new words.
Here are some examples of how the liquid mutations are formed …..
OR + B = OR V
OR + BL = OR VL
OR + BR = OR VR
OR + C = OR CH
OR + CL = OR CHL
OR + CR = OR CHR
OR + D = OR DH
OR + DR = OR DHR
OR + F = OR F
OR + G = OR ‘
The chart below shows how all the consonants change in LIQUID mutation. The original consonant undergoing the change is shaded in BLUE (Basic C means “original basic consonant”.) The changed forms are shaded in YELLOW, along with the instances which cause LIQUID mutation and the meanings of the words that cause it.
The idea behind this mutation is that “stops” become “spirants”. In essence, the sudden “stops” that occur in language would become “weakened” and would therefore allow the language to flow better (much the same as the idea of lenition). In some cases, liquid mutation, instead of weakening, strengthens the sounds (for example: H>CH, HW>CHW). So in some ways this mutation is like lenition, but it is certainly not the same.
Examples of Liquid Mutation:
or + dôr > or dhôr “above land”
or + lhuig > or ‘luig “above snakes”
or Ceven > or Cheven “above earth”
or Perian > or Pherian “above a Hobbit”
al- + Coron > Alchoron “not from Kôr”
er- + camion > Erchamion “one-handed”
The translation of “o”
Sindarin “o” translates as “of/from”, but it is not “of” in the genitival sense. “Aran o Moria” would mean Lord from Moria while “Aran Moria” would mean “Lord of Moria” … the one who rules it. “O” would not be used in a genitival relationship which either shows possession or relationship. In the attested Moria gate inscription, “Aran Moria” shows the genitival relationship, while “Celebrimbor o Eregion” simply tells where Celebrimbor is from.