The infinitive of basic verbs is formed by adding the ending -ë to the verbal stem.
Example: “tecë” (to write)
The infinitive of A-stem verbs is identical to the verbal stem.
Example: “anta” (to give)

The Quenya infinitive is used much the same as in English; to make it possible to combine several verbs in a sentence.
Example: “Melin tecë.” (I love to write.)

Notice that Quenya does not have anything corresponding to the particle “to” that is used in English.

One More Negative Verb

We already know from lesson 4 that Quenya has a special verb meaning “to not be (something)”. The verbal stem is “um-“, past tense “úmë”, future tense “úva”.
Examples: Umin atar. Úmen atar. Úvan atar. (I am not a father. I was not a father. I will not be a father.)

Quenya also has a special verb that is used in negative expressions such as “to not do (something)”. The verbal stem is “ua-“, aorist and present tense “ua”, past tense “únë”, perfect tense “uië”, future tense “úva”. However, these conjugated forms are only used in an answer where the verb is clear from the question.
Example: “Man mantë i culuma?” (Who ate the orange?) Únen (I didn’t).

The more common use of the verb “ua-“ is together with another verb. The pronominal ending, if any, is added to the form “ua-”, and the tense is expressed by the main verb.

Uan mótuva. (I will not toil.) – future tense
Ualdë téca. (You are not writing) – present tense
I hína ua amátië. (The child has not eaten.) – perfect tense
I torni uar mernë quetë. (The brothers did not want to speak) – past tense; note plural “uar”.

The Active Participle

The active participle is an adjectival word derived from a verb and it is used to describe nouns in much the same way normal adjectives are.
Example: “mótala amil” (a toiling mother)

The active participle is formed by adding the ending -la to the verbal stem and lengthening the stem vowel (unless it is followed by more than one consonant).
Example: “antala” (giving, from “anta-“)

For basic verbs, an “a” is added to the stem to avoid “impossible” consonant combinations.
Example: “mátala” (eating, from “mat-“)

Notice that, unlike adjectives, the active participle does not agree in number with the word it describes.
Example: “mótala atar” (a toiling father), “mótala atari” (toiling fathers)


Vocabulary List

minë “one”
atta “two”
neldë “three”
canta “four”
ua- “not to do”
vil- “to fly”
alqua “swan”
quetta “word”
wilwarin (wilwarind-) “butterfly”
ve “as, like”
yondo “son”
yeldë “daughter”


Tengwar Lesson 9

The companion of ‘l’ is ‘r’:


Again as the combination ‘rd’ occurs frequently in Quenya and as  ‘d’ never appears on its own, there exists a combined tengwa for ‘rd’.

As you can see there are two tengwar for ‘r’; we use rómen if the following sound is a vowel, órë when the following sound is a consonant or when it’s the final sound of a word. You should note the difference between the use of rómen/órë and the use of silmë/silmë nuquerna: we use silmë nuquerna only if there is a tehta on it, this is not necessarily so for rómen. Rómen is also used if the following tengwa denotes a long vowel or a diphthong and in these cases it appears without a tehta.

Órë however can never have a tehta on it.

A general remark about tengwar: they don’t have any capitals. So there is no difference between the first word of a sentence and the others or between a name and another type of noun.