The dative case is used for the following:
– the indirect (dative) object of a sentence (I gave the book *to the smith*)
– to express “for” in the sense “for someone” (The boy works *for the smith*)
– with gerunds to express purpose (I came *in order to meet* the king)
– with impersonal verbs (It seems *to me*)

The ending for dative case singular is”-n”.
Example: “i tanon” (to/for the smith).
If this ending is to be added to a word that ends in a consonant, an “e” is slipped in to avoid impossible consonant combinations.
Example: “i aranen” (to/for the king).

The plural ending is “-in” for words with plurals in “-r” (this “r” is dropped before the dative ending is added), but if the word has a plural in “-i”, only “-n” is added.
Example: “i tanoin” (to/for the smiths), i vessin (to/for the wives)

The gerund

A gerund is a form of the verb that works like a noun. Quenya gerunds can be formed by adding -ië to the verbal stem (A-stems lose their final -a, and verbs ending in -ya drop this entire ending).
Example: turië (controlling, from tur-), mótië (toiling, from móta-), hilië (following, from “hilya-“).

The gerund in the dative case is used to express the idea of “in order to” / “with the purpose of”.
Example: I aran túlë turien i nórë. The king came (in order) to rule the land.
Literal translation: The king came for ruling the land.

Pronominal endings for “we”
Confusingly enough for mortals, Quenya has several pronominal endings for “we”:
– lvë (“inclusive we”, including the person(s) addressed)
– lmë (“exclusive we”, excluding the person(s) addressed)
– mmë (“dual we” – whether inclusive, exclusive or both is unknown)

1. “Turuvalvë i nórë, quentë i aran ar i aranel”. Inclusive “we” – the king and princess expect to rule with the persons addressed, so perhaps they’re addressing their council.
2. “Turuvalmë i nórë, quente i aran ar i aranel.” Exclusive “we” – the king and princess don’t expect to rule with the persons addressed, so this is what they might say to the people.
3. “Turuvammë i nórë, quente i aran.” Dual “we” (“the two of us”) – the king might be addressing the princess he’ll rule with (inclusive dual), or talking to the people, but with “we” meaning himself and the princess (exclusive dual).


Lesson 13 Vocabulary List

mal “but”
var “or”
or “over”
laire “poem”
alassë “joy”
aran “king”
minya “first”
métima “last, final”
melda “dear, beloved”
voronda “faithful”
valin “happy”
laita- “to bless, to praise”
mahta- “to fight”


Tengwar lesson 13

The consonant ‘y’ is a little bit special in Quenya as it in most words is not denoted by a separate tengwa but by two dots under another consonant. The four most frequent combinations are:


Note that as ‘ry’ is always followed by a vowel (a short vowel, long vowel or diphthong) we always use rómen and never órë.