The allative case is used to express “to” in the sense “towards”, and can also mean “on, upon” and “into”.

The ending for allative case singular is “-nna”.
Example: “i ostonna” (to the town).
If this ending is to be added to a word that ends in a consonant, an “e” is slipped in to avoid impossible consonant combinations.
Example: “i cardenna” (to the house).
But, if the word ends in “-n”, the allative ending can be added directly. Example: “i aranna” (to the king)

The plural ending is “-nnar”.
Examples: “i ostonnar” (to the towns), “i cardinnar” (to the houses).
Notice that for plural, the connecting vowel is “i”.

The dual ending is “-nta”.
Example: “i ciryanta” (to the twin ships).
It is not known how nouns with dual forms in “-u” form the allative case; two possibilities are “cardunta” and “cardunna” (both meaning ‘to the twin houses’).

The ablative case

The ablative case is used to express “from”, and can also mean “of” (as in “Rúmil of Tirion”) and “out of”. The preposition “et” (out) and the verb “ruc-” (to fear) are followed by the ablative case.
Example: “et cardello” (out of/from the house), “rucin i orcollo” (I fear the orc.)

The ending for ablative case singular is -llo.
Examples: “i ostollo” (from the town); “i cardello” (from the house).

The plural ending is -llon (with -llor as a valid alternative).
Examples: “i ostollon” (from the towns), “i cardillon” (from the houses).

The dual ending is -lto.
Example: “i ostolto” (from the twin towns).
A noun with dual in “-u” may take the ablative form “cardulto” or “cardullo” (from the twin houses).

Another possibility to avoid unwanted consonant combinations when adding endings for these two cases is to omit the final consonant. This is commonly used with directions. Examples: Hyarmenna (to the South), Formello (from the North)

Possessive pronominal endings

These endings are similar to the personal pronominal endings for verbs; they just end in -a instead of -ë. They are added to nouns to show ownership.
Examples: lótenya (my flower), lótelya (your flower), lótenta (their flower).

-nya (my)
-lya (your)
-rya (his, her, its)
-lva (our; inclusive)
-lma (our; exclusive)
-mma (our; dual)
-nta (their)

When added to a noun ending in a consonant, an “e” is inserted *but* for “-nya” an “i” is used instead.
Examples: atarelya (your father), atarinya (my father)

Endings for case and number are added *after* the possessive pronominal endings.
Examples: ostonya (my town; singular), ostonyar (my towns; plural), ostonyanna (to my town; allative singular ), ostonyallon (from my towns; ablative plural)

Two special verbs

“Equë” means “says” or “said” and is used in direct quotations with a name or full pronoun. This verb has no tenses or plural and is always placed before its subject. Example: “Equë Teleporno:” (Celeborn says/said:)

“Auta-“ (to go away, leave, pass) has two sets of irregular past and perfect tense forms with different meanings. Oantë/oantië means “went away”/”has gone away” in a physical sense, while “vánë/avánië” means “passed”/”has passed” in the sense of being lost, having disappeared or died.


Lesson 14 Vocabulary List

ilya “all, whole” (plural: ilyë)
rimba “numerous” (plural: rimbë, “a great number, many”)
equë “says, said”
auta “to leave, to go away, to pass away”
ruc- “to fear” (+abl.)
caita- “to lie” (e.g. in a bed)
hosta- “to collect, to gather”
et “out”, “from” (+abl)
ëar “sea”
an “for” (in the sense “because”)
minna “into”
Formen “(the) North”
Hyarmen “(the) South”


Tengwar Lesson 14

The other consonants that can be followed by ‘y’ are ‘h’ and the consonant cluster ‘nt’:


The pronunciation of ‘hy’ is not ‘h’ + ‘y’ but ‘ch’ + ‘y’ (with the ‘ch’ of Bach or loch).
Sometimes the y-sound appears at the beginning of a word or after a vowel, in that case we use a separate tengwa:


But even in that case we use the double dots, so anna effectively never appears without those dots: