Demonstratives are words like this/these and that/those, but Quenya has several words for “that”, with different shades of meaning. The Quenya demonstratives are placed after the noun they determine, and the plurals are formed like for adjectives ending in -a.

sina – this. Example: “osto sina” (this town)
tana – that. Example: “osto tana” (that town)
enta – that. [that over there, yonder; that in the future] “osto enta” (that town yonder), “lómë enta” (that (coming)night )
yana – that. [that in the past, former] “lómë yana” (that night (in the past))

It is not known if the demonstratives can be used by themselves in phrases like “this is a large town”, so it’s safer to use them as “adjectives” only.

The Quenya case endings are normally used with nouns, but when there is an adjectival word (adjective, participle or demonstrative) *following* the noun it describes, the case ending is often added to that word instead.

osto sinanna (to this town; allative)
osto tanallo (from that town; ablative)
macil entanen (by that sword over there; instrumental)
lómë yanassë (in that night in the past; locative)

If the noun is plural, it will still receive its normal plural ending (-r or -i), even though the ending for case is attached to the adjectival word instead. Example: “ostor sinassen” (in these towns). Notice that it is always a valid alternative to use the case ending with the noun, and that it is preferable to do so if the case ending would somehow “clash” with the other word.


Most ordinal numbers end in “-ëa”, just replacing the final vowel of the corresponding cardinal number with this ending:

minë (one) – minya (first)
atta (two) – attëa (second)
neldë (three) – neldëa (third)
canta (four) – cantëa (forth)
lempë (five) – lempëa (fifth)
enquë (six) – enquëa (sixth)
otso (seven) – otsëa (seventh)
tolto (eight) – toltëa (eighth)
nertë (nine) – nertëa (ninth)

U-stem nouns

A few nouns in -o have stems in “-u”, which are used whenever a case ending or pronominal ending is added. Example: ango (snake) – angun (to a snake; dative) – angulya (your snake)

U-stems ending in “-go” or “-co” have plural forms in “-gwi” / “-qui”. Example: angwi (snakes), rusqui (foxes, from “rusco”), ranqui (arms, from “ranco”). This is maintained with all case endings beginning in “i”, e.g. “rusquinen” (by foxes; instrumental). But, if the case ending does not contain “i”, it’s added to the normal stem of the word; “ruscullor” (from foxes; ablative).

These are the known u-stems:
ango (angu-, pl. angwi) “snake”
líco (licu-) “wax”
malo (malu-) “pollen, yellow powder”
orco (orcu-, pl. orqui) “Orc, goblin”
ranco (rancu-, pl. ranqui) “arm”
rusco (ruscu-, pl. rusqui) “fox”
súlo (súlu-) “goblet”
tulco (tulcu-, pl. tulqui) “support, prop”
tumbo (tumbu-) “deep valley (under or among hills)”
tumpo (tumpu-) “hump”
tundo (tundu-) “hill, mound”
ulco (ulcu-) “evil” (as noun)
urco (urcu-, pl. urqui) “bogey; Orc”
Utumno (Utumnu-) “Utumno” (the name of Melkor’s stronghold)

There are also words that end in “–u” in the nominative singular (the normal, endingless form that is used when we don’t need a particular case), but these are not u-stems. They differ from the u-stems in the following cases:
nominative sing Example: heru (lord)
nominative pl. Example: herur (lords)
genitive pl. Example: heruron (of lords)
These words always have a t-dual. Example: taracut (a pair of oxen)

I-stem nouns (by dirk_math)
The nouns ending in “–ë” can be subdivided in two groups: the normal nouns and the i-stems.

The normal nouns as e.g. aurë (day) keep this “–ë” in all cases of the singular and in ablative, allative and locative in the plural. In the other cases of the plural this “–ë” changes into an “–i”. Example:
auri (nominative pl.)
aurion (genitive pl.)
auríva (possessive pl.)
aurín (dative pl.)
aurínen (instrumental pl.)

The I-stems, however, have an “–i” in all cases except the nominative singular, so in fact they have a stem-form in “–i”.

The complete list of known i-stems:
ehtë (ehti-) “spear”
finë (fini-) “hair”
hísë (hísi-) “mist, fog”
lingwë (lingwi-) “fish”
lírë (líri-) “song”
lómë (lómi-) “night”
nengwë (nengwi-) “nose”
noirë (noiri-) “grave”
porë (pori-) “meal”
rincë (rinci)”flourish, quick shake”
súrë (súri-) “wind”
tallunë (talluni-) “sole of foot”

The adjectives in “–ë” also belong to the i-stems, but one can only notice this when the adjective takes case endings (because it is put behind the noun or because it is used as a noun). Examples:
coa carninna (to a red house… allative)
i morin (to the black one… dative)


Vocabulary List

sina “this”
tana “that”
enta “that” (over there, yonder; in the future)
yana “that” (former, in the past)
ango (angu-) “snake”
sangwa “poison”
vendë “maiden”
tuile “spring” (the season)
yávië “autumn”
attëa “second” (ordinal number)
neldëa “third”
pol- “be [physically] able to”


Tengwar Lesson 17

The remaining three diphthongs have a -u as second sound. They make use of the following tengwa:


And they are:

An ‘r’ is denoted with rómen if it is followed by a diphthong.
Silmë and essë are not upside down (nuquerna) when followed by a diphthong.

And to finish the collection we have one final tengwa:


It only appears at the beginning of a word and the ‘h’ of ‘hw’ is pronounced as the ‘ch’ from Bach or loch.