18 Ind. Pronouns
In most cases, pronouns in Quenya are endings added to verbs, but there are also independent forms:
lye (you, polite singular)
tye (you, familiar sg.)
se (he/she, him/her). Also hye (him/her).
ve (we, inclusive)
me (we, exclusive)
le (you, plural)
The independent pronouns are used:
– when the verb has an object but no pronominal ending for the subject
– when case endings are needed [note: the plural pronouns form their cases with the singular case endings, e.g. men “for us”]
– when the copula is left out
– in imperative phrases
– after gerunds in the dative case expressing “in order to”
I aran varyanë ni (The king protected me)
Á hlarë me! (Hear us!)
Mahtanente mapien ni. (They fought to seize me.)
Á anta nin masta! (Give me bread! “nin” is dative of “ni”)
Le vanima. (You [are] beautiful.)
“Óla-” (to dream) and a few other verbs are impersonal, meaning that the person affected by them is not the grammatical subject of the phrase, but is mentioned in the dative case.
Example: Óla i cánon malto. (The commander dreams about gold)
A literal translation would be “[It] dreams *for the commander* about gold”.
A small number of verbs have stems in “-u”: palu- (to open wide, spread, expand, extend), hlapu- (to fly or stream in the wind), fifíru- (to slowly fade away), nurru- (to murmur, grumble), miqu- (to kiss; past tense: minquë), siqu- (to sigh; past tense: síquë).
An example of the active participle of these verbs is “hlápula”.
A little more is known about the verb nicu- (to be chill, cold (of weather); to snow, it is cold, it freezes). Aorist 3rd person singular niquë (it snows, it freezes), present níqua (it is freezing), past tense nicunë (it snowed, it froze).
The particle “lá” can mean two things:
– “beyond” (used for comparison)
– “not” (used to negate sentences)
When used as a negation, lá is placed in front of the verb that is to be negated. It is interchangeable with the negative verb (“ua-“).
I neri merner apsa. (The men wanted food.)
I neri lá merner apsa (The men didn’t want food)
Fauta. (It snows.)
Lá fauta. (It doesn’t snow.)
Notice that the Quenya construction is simpler than the English one – “lá” is just inserted, nothing else is changed.
Lá can also be used as a negative verb when another verb is not expressed or repeated (aorist: gets short “a” as in the conjugated forms of ná, present: laia, past: lánë, perfect: alaië, future: lauva).
Example: Matin apsa mal lan yávë. (I eat meat but I don’t [eat] fruit),
1. ni “I” / “me”
2. lye “you” (polite singular)
3. tye “you” (familiar singular)
4. se “he / she” / ”him / her” Also hye (“him / her”)
5. sa “it”
6. ve “we” / “us” (inclusive)
7. me “we” / “us” (exclusive)
8. le “you” (plural)
9. te “they / them”
10. óla- (impersonal verb) “to dream”
11. or- (impersonal verb)”to urge, impel”, can be used for “feel moved to, would like to”
12. mauya- (impersonal verb) “to compel”, can be used for “have to, must”
13. lá 1. “beyond” (comparison) 2. “not” (negation)
14. saila “wise”
15. alta “large”
From this lesson onwards, there will only be exercises, each consisting of two lines of the poem Namárië. The exception is Lesson 23 – Numerals, where you will also find a part on writing numbers with Tengwar.