19 More pronouns
Pronouns in imperative phrases
Pronouns can be used with imperatives to specify whom the command or request is directed at, and also to whom/what the addressee is asked to do something.
For the subject, an ending is added to the verb:
One addressee: -t
Several addressees: -l
Á matet! (“Eat!” – directed at one person)
A matel! (“Eat! – directed at several persons)
For the object, the independent pronoun is added to the imperative particle “á” (or, for negative requests, to “áva”), but can also be used as a separate word. If both a direct and an indirect pronoun are to be used, one of them must be a separate word, as only one pronoun at a time can be glued to á / áva.
Áte hilya! (“Follow them!”)
Á hilya te! (“Follow them!”)
Ávate hilyal! (“Don’t follow them!”… specifically directed at a group of addressees)
Ánin antat sa! (“Give that to me”… dative of “ni”, one addressee, independent object pronoun)
In addition to the independent pronouns already introduced, there are also emphatic forms, which are used to put special emphasis on the pronoun:
essë/eryë (he, she)
elvë (we, inclusive)
elme (we, exclusive)
emmë (we “both of us”, dual)
engwë (you “both of you”, dual)
esto (they “both of them”, dual)
Mélan elyë. (I love *you* … “I love you and nobody else”)
Inyë méla tyë. (*I* love you… “I’m the one who loves you”)
Notice that the verb does not take any pronominal endings when an emphatic pronoun is used as the subject (but would receive the usual -r with a plural subject).
There is another type of emphatic pronouns; possessive ones. Examples are “menya” (our), “ninya” (my), lyenya (your), senya (his/her).
There are also reflexive pronouns:
immo (“myself”, “yourself”, “himself”, “herself”
imma (“itself” – only used for non-living things)
immë (“ourselves” – exclusive)
inwë (“ourselves” – inclusive)
(The asterisk means that the form is likely, but not attested in Tolkien’s writings.)
*manan (why?…literally “what for?”…dative)
*manna (where to?…allative)
*mallo (where from?…ablative)
The known word for “when”, “írë”, is a relative pronoun, not an interrogative one.
A possible circumlocution for the question-word “when?” is “lú manassë?” (at what time?).
Two postpositions are known, and they are placed after the word they connect with.
yá (ago) Example: atta loar yá (two years ago)
pella (beyond) Example: Marin i taurë pella. (I dwell beyond the forest.)
1. loa “year”
2. yá “ago”
3. pella “beyond”
4. írë “when”
5. man “who?”
6. mana “what?”
7. manen “how?”
8. inyë “I” (emphatic pronoun)
9. elyë “you” (emphatic pronoun)
10. elmë “we” (exclusive, emphatic pronoun)
11. elvë “we” (inclusive, emphatic pronoun)
12. emmë “we” (dual, emphatic pronoun)
13. entë (they, emphatic pronoun)