Abase – to lower in rank, office or reputation
Abjure- renounce; give up; disown
Adamant – diamond
Aforetime- previously
Amidmost- in the middle of
Anon- at another time; soon
Argent- silvery white; bright like silver
Atonement- amends; compensation
Aught- anything


Befall- to happen or occur
Begrudge- envy
Belie- show to be a lie; misrepresent
Bequeath- to pass on to
Bereft- deprived
Besiege- to close in on; overwhelm
Beseech (besought)- beg earnestly for
Bethink (bethought)- to remember; bear in mind
Blazoned -(heraldic) painted or inscribed
Bode- announce beforehand; predict
Bulwark- defensive wall


Cairn- stone mound set as a marker; tombstone
Carcanet – jeweled necklace
Coeval- person of the same age, date; equally old
Coffer- a strong chest to hold money, valuables
Comely – pleasant-looking
Countenance- expression of the face; appearance
Craven- coward
Cumbrous- hindrance; awkward


Descry- catch sight of
Dirge- mournful music
Doom – fate (in the archaic sense not necessarily bad)
Dost- archaic for ‘do (you)’
Duress- compulsion by threat, force; oppression

Enamour(ed)- to inspire with love; charm
Enmesh(ed)- to catch; entangle
Ere- before
Espy- to catch sight of
Essay(ed)- to attempt


Fathom- understand; or measurement of 6 feet
Fey – unafraid of death
Firth- mouth of a river
Flank – exposed side of an army
Fleet-footed- swift moving; nimble
Forestall- prevent by taking action beforehand
Foretell- predict
Fume- smoke, gas, vapor


Gainsay – contradict
Girt- to fasten with a belt
Graven- engraved
Guile- deceit


Hallow- make or see as holy
Hast- archaic for ‘(you) have’
Hauberk – coat made of chain-mail
Hearken- to listen to
Hem (in)- enclose; confine
Hither- towards this place


Kine- cattle

Lamentation- expression of grief; mourning
Languish- lose strength; suffer hardship
Leaguer- a siege
League- measure of distance; about 3 miles
Lithe- flexible; limber
Lofty- of great height; noble person (superior)


Manifold – many
Maw – jaws and throat
Mire- soggy, muddy ground
Mischance – accident


Naught- worthless; useless; nothing
Nethermost – deepest; lowest
Nigh- near
Noontide- best part of


Obeisance- to bow; act of reverence; homage
Outworn – exhausted


Perforce – literally by force; by necessity; unavoidable
Pestilence- something harmful; destructive; evil
Phalanx- rank of people; soldiers
Pomp- splendor; magnificence
Portend- give warning in advance; foretell
Promontory- high land that sticks out into water; bluff
Prowess- exceptional bravery; skill


Quail – give way to; be intimidated
Quay- landing place for ships


Raiment- clothing; attire
Rearguard – the troops set to cover the rear ranks of a retreating army
Redress- put right; compensate; remedy
Reek- to give off smoke
Rent- torn apart
Rumour – sound


Sable- (heraldic) very dark black
Sallow- pale brown color
Semblance- likeness; resemblance
Shod- to cover for strength or protection
Sojourn- temporary stay in a place
Sortie- sudden attack by troops from a besieged place
Succour- help; aide
Sue- make a petition or appeal
Sunder- to separate; part; divide
Swarthy- dark complexion


Tarn- small mountain lake
Teem (with)- abundant in
Thence- from that time or place; that reason
Thereto- to that place or thing; circumstance
Therewith- in addition to; following upon
Thine- archaic for ‘yours’
Thither- toward that place
Thou- archaic for ‘you’
Thrall- subject to bondage; enslave; slave
Thraldom – enslavement
Trammels- net for catching birds or fish
Tumults- commotion; uproar


Unblazoned- without coat of arms
Uncouth- lacking in manners; rough; rude
Unsated- unsatisfied
Upbraid- rebuke severely


Vambrace – armour worn of the forearm
Vanguard- front part of an army
Vassal – servant
Vesture- clothing; covering


Waif- neglected child; homeless
Wane- decrease
Wayfarer- traveler
Wax- increase
Wellnigh- almost
Wheedle- to persuade with flattery
Whence- from what place
Whetted- sharpened
Whiles- in the meantime
Whither- to what or which place
Woe- extreme misery
Wont- accustomed to; habit
Wrought- formed; made

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