Sindarin Mutations Chart

The second consonant mutation is known as Nasal Mutation. This mutation is caused by certain words that end in “nasal N” (nasality being air passing through the nose rather than the mouth). This nasality then collides with the following word’s first consonant.

Just like lenition, nasal mutation is triggered by certain prepositions and articles. Nasal mutation is triggered by: in “the” (plural), in “of the” (plural genitival form only), ‘nin “to/for the” (plural form), dan “against”, and an “for, to”.

In “the” (plural), in “of the” (plural genitival form), and ‘nin “to/for the” (plural form) all act like the first nasal mutation in the chart …. for IN.

Here are some examples of how the nasal mutations are formed …..

in + B = I M dan + B = DAM M an + B = AM M
in + BL = I ML dan + BL = DA ML an + BL = A ML
in + BR = I MR dan + BR = DA MR an + BR = A MR
in + C = I CH dan + C = DA CH an + C = A CH
in + CL = I CHL dan + CL = DA CHL an + CL = A CHL
in + CR = I CHR dan + CR = DA CHR an + CR = A CHR
in + D = I N dan + D = DAN N an + D = AN N
in + DR = IN DR dan + DR = DAN DR an + DR = AN DR
in + F = I F dan + F = DAF F an + F = AF F
in + G = I NG dan + G = DAN NG an + G = AN NG

The chart below shows how all the consonants change in nasal mutation. The original consonant undergoing the change is shaded in BLUE (Basic C means “original basic consonant”.) The changed forms are shaded in YELLOW, along with the instances which cause nasal mutation and the meanings of the words that cause it.

Homework Mentor’s notes: With nasal mutation (and unlike lenition), not only the first letter of the following word changes, but oftentimes the article or preposition causing the mutation changes also. Pay close attention to this when reading the chart.

Also NOTE that the three special cases of primitive B, D, and G from MB, ND, and NG (at the bottom of the chart) behave differently than regular B, D, and G.


in “the” + bair “lands” = i mbair “the lands” (this is an example of a “special case of primitive MB …. see bottom of chart)
in “the” + gelaidh “trees” = i ngelaidh “the trees”

in “genitive ‘of the’ ” + beraid “towers” = i meraid “of the towers”
in “genitive ‘of the’ ” + periain “haflings” = i pheriain “of the haflings”

‘nin “to the, for the” + celerdain “lampwrights” = ‘ni chelerdain “to the lampwrights”
‘nin “to the, for the” + brennyn “lords” = ‘ni mrennyn “to the lords”

an “for, to” + Duredhel “dark elf” = an Nuredhel “for/to a dark elf”
an “for, to” + barad “tower” = am marad “for/to a tower”

dan “against” + coth “enemy” = da choth “against an enemy”
dan “against” + galadh “tree” = dan ngalad “against a tree”
dan “against” + raw “lion” = dadh raw “against a lion”

Nasal Mutation can also be seen in some Tolkien names (compounds) …. something we will discuss in a new lesson …. as soon as the rest of the regular lessons are updated !!