Adverbs can be formed by adding the ending -vë to adjectives ending in -a.
Example: linta (“swift”, adjective) > lintavë (“swiftly”, adverb)
There are also adverbs not formed from adjectives, such as sí (now), rato (soon), aqua (fully, completely).

Pronominal endings for “they” and “them”

In Quenya, the pronoun “they” is expressed by adding the ending “-ntë” to the verb.
Examples: Mótantë (They labour), Mótuvantë. (They will labour), Mótanentë (They laboured).

“Them” is expressed with the ending “-t”.
Example: I amil cennet. (The mother saw them.)

Exception: when “-t” is added to an infinitive of a basic verb, the ending “-ta” is inserted before “-t”. (Notice that a special form of the infinitive is used, ending in -i instead of -ë).
Example: I amil merne cenitat. (The mother wished to see them.) It is uncertain whether it would be possible to use the same method for attaching an object ending to the infinitive an a-stem verb.

Two pronominal endings can be added to the same verb.
Example: Cenuvantet. (verb stem “cen-” + future tense ending “-uva” + pronominal ending “-nte” (subject) + pronominal ending “-t” (object))
Translation: They will see them.

The simple plural ending “-r” is not used when the verb has a pronominal ending.
Example: I atari quetuvar. (The fathers will talk) BUT Quetuvantë (They will talk.)

Past tense of verbs ending in “-ya”

Intransitive verbs (verbs that can’t have an object) that end in “-ya” drop this ending in the past tense.
Example: “ranya-” (to stray) > p.t. “rannë” (NOT “ranyanë”)
Transitive verbs (verbs that can take an object) in “-ya” keep this ending in the past tense.
Example: “hilya-” (to follow) > p.t. “hilyanë”

A more thorough general explanation of transitive and intransitive verbs can be found here: Grammar course (University of Calgary)

The Passive Participle

The passive participle is an adjectival word derived from a verb and it is used to describe nouns.
Example: “quétina quetta” (a spoken word).

The passive participle of a-stem verbs is formed by adding the ending “-ina” to the verbal stem.
Example: “lantaina” (fallen, from “lanta-“)

The ending “-ina” is also used with basic verbs ending in -c, -t or -p. The stem vowel is lengthened unless it is followed by a consonant cluster.
Example: “quétina” (spoken, from “quet-“).

The passive participle of basic verbs ending in other consonants is formed by just adding the ending -na to the verbal stem.
Example: “carna” (made, from “car-“).
Exception: in verbs ending in -l, the ending changes into “-da” to avoid the impossible consonant combination “ln”.
Example: “melda” (loved, from “mel-“)

Just like adjectives, passive participles agree in number with the word they describe.
Example: “lantaina lassë” (a fallen leaf), “lantainë lassi” (fallen leaves)


Lesson 10 Vocabulary List

lempë “five”
enquë “six”
otso “seven”
tolto “eight”
lanta- “to fall”
ranya- “to stray”
hilya- “to follow”
linta “swift”
rato “soon”
aqua “fully, completely, wholly”
oialë “forever”
lassë “leaf”


Tengwar Lesson 10

In Quenya several sounds are denoted by the letter ‘h’:

Hyarmen denotes the sound English speakers normally associate with an ‘h’, e.g. the ‘h’ of ‘hire’. The tehtar are not put above hyarmen but slightly to the right and below the top of the stem.

Aha denotes the final sound of the German word Bach or the Scottish word loch.
As aha is always followed by a consonant (mostly a tinco, and in the word ohlon “diphthong” a lambë), it never carries a tehta.

The tengwa halla is again a remnant of Primitive Elvish (like súlë and noldo). It was used to denote that a word started with a whispered ‘l’ or ‘r’. In Third Age Quenya it isn’t pronounced at all. It can however be recognized as the words that start with a halla have an initial ‘hl’ or ‘hr’ in the word list (and we pronounce these as ordinary ‘l’ or ‘r’). Halla is thus always followed by a lambë or a rómen.