The possessive case singular is formed by adding the ending “-va” (“-wa” if the noun ends in a consonant).
Example: “i parma vesseva” (the wife’s book / the book of the wife), “i parma mahtarwa” (the warrior’s book / the book of the warrior).
Remember to use the special stem form if the noun has one!

The plural ending is “-iva” and it is added to the *singular form* of the noun, that is, not like with the genitive case.
Example: mahtar+iva > mahtariva, “i parma mahtariva” (the book of the warriors).
If the word ends in -ë or -i, this vowel merges with the plural ending to produce a long í.
Example: “i parma vessíva” (the book of the wives)

*Special case:*
If the word has the diphthong “ui” in the second to last syllable, the final vowel becomes long when the ending -va is added.
Example: cuilë > cuiléva.

The possessive case is used to denote:
– the current ownership of things
– characteristics and permanent attributes
– the material of which something consists
– the object of a verbal noun

Verbal nouns

Verbal nouns are nouns formed from verbs, such as “lindalë” (singing, from linda-), and describe an action as a process or thing. They can be made from A-stem verbs by adding the ending -lë to the stem.


Lesson 12 Vocabulary List

malta “gold”
tavar “wood” (as a material)
ondo “stone, rock”
sicil “knife, dagger”
tópa “roof”
ramba “wall”
colla “cloak”
maita “hungry”
soica “thirsty”
mapa- “to grasp, to seize”
nu “under”


Tengwar Lesson 12

Eight consonants can be double in length in Quenya (we indeed pronounce them longer than the non-doubled variants). We’ve already met ‘ss’ and as this sound is represented by a separate letter, we skip it here.
Of the other double consonants, four are very frequent and we denote them as follows:


The other three are less often found in Quenya:


A double ‘r’ always uses rómen as the next sound is always a vowel (a short vowel, long vowel or diphthong).