The instrumental case is used to express how something happened or was done, in the sense “by what means”, “using what” or “by whom”, i.e. I came *by foot*, I hit the enemy *with a stone*, the tree was felled *by me*. It cannot be used to mean “with” in the sense “together with”.

The ending for instrumental singular is “-nen”.
Example: “rocconen” (by horse).
If the ending is to be added to a word that ends in a consonant other than -n and -r, an “e” is slipped in to avoid impossible consonant combinations.

The plural ending is “-inen”.
Example: “roccoinen” (by horses).
If the ending is to be added to a word ending in -e, this merges with the -i, forming a long í.
Example: lassë (leaf) – **lasseinen (wrong form) – lassínen (instrumental: by/with leaves).

The imperative

The imperative is a verb form used for requests and commands. A few ‘old’ imperative forms ending in “-a” exist (heca! [be gone], ela! [look]), but the normal way of forming imperatives is with the particle “á”.

A-stem verbs use á + the verb stem.
Example: “á móta!” (work!)
Basic verbs use á + add -e to the verb stem.
Example: “á sucë!” (drink!)
Negative requests/commands are made with the particle “áva” (don’t)
Example:“áva móta!” (don’t work!), “áva sucë!” (don’t drink!)
There is also a shorter form that is used without another verb:
Example: “Vá!” (Don’t!)

There is also a verb “ava-“ meaning “to forbid, to prohibit”. (future tense: auva, perfect tense: avávië).

Wishes can be expressed using the word “nai” (be it that) with the future tense of the verb.
Example: “Nai hiruvalyë alassë.” (be it that you will find joy = I hope that you will find joy = may you find joy).


Lesson 16 Vocabulary List

as “with” (= together with)
lelya “to go, to travel” pa. t.: lendë
alya “rich, prosperous, blessed”
úmëa “evil”
lunga “heavy”
anna “gift”
nér (ner-) “man” (= adult male)
nís (niss-) “woman”
rocco “horse”
mírë “jewel”
taurë “forest”
pelecco “axe”


Tengwar Lesson 16

The only sounds that remain are the diphthongs. In this lesson we’ll study the diphthongs which have an –i as the second sound. We have a special tengwa to denote this second sound:


It can be combined with the four other vowels:


The diphthong ‘ei’ is very rare and only appears in two dative and instrumental plurals: rein “to days” (of ré “day”), peinen “with lips” (of pé “lip”).

An ‘r’ is denoted with rómen if it is followed by a diphthong.
Silmë and essë are not upside down (nuquerna) when followed by a diphthong.